Door access control system configuration Guide
The door access control system provides authorized individuals or companies with secure and reliable enter and exit services. Access control systems for doors can control and determine who, when, and where they can enter the appropriate area.
The applications range of access control systems is from single door access control systems to large network access control systems for multiple doors buildings. It is an effective measure to solve the security management of important departments’ entrances and exits. Applicable to various confidential departments, such as office, hotel, apartment, parking lot, armory, confidential room, intelligent community, and factory.
The access control system has already surpassed the simple doorway and key management, and it has gradually developed into a complete access control management system. It plays a greater role in the administrative work of work environment security and personnel attendance management.
Before deciding to use a door access control systems, let us take a moment to think about the following questions;
- What is the purpose of installing an access control system?
- Where will you install the access control system? Office, hotels, buildings or home?
- What types of door access control systems do you need?
1, What is the purpose of installing an access control system?
The most basic access control function is to block anyone or a car that should not enter an area. This can be any sensitive area of the front door, garage, office, office building, hospital, hotel etc. You may also want to use an access control systems for doors to track when employees go to and from the door. Basic access control systems usually only have an access control card reader, access control power supply, and maglock or electric bolt lock. Higher security applications may require multiple authentication methods (such as cards and fingerprints) and include more complex features. Finally, consider whether you need to integrate with other security systems, such as monitoring systems, alarm systems, and fire protection systems.
2, What types of door access control systems do you need?
Once you have confirmed the purpose of installing access control systems, consider the number of doors you need to protect. Different types of door access systems will be used for different doors in quantity.
1), Stand alone access control system
When there is only one door, you can install a single door access control system, that is, a stand alone proximity access control system will be used.
The stand alone access control system cannot communicate with the computer, and the access control settings permission is set on the keyboard or the mother card of the machine. There is also some access control stand alone single door system machines that are authorized to make cards such as a keypad with a liquid crystal display.
Stand alone access control system components include stand-alone card reader (with card reader and controller) +access control exit button + electric lock + access control power supply+ proximity card.
Advantages: The price is relatively cheap, and the decoration staff who do not need computer knowledge can install it.
Disadvantages: The safety is poor because the relay that controls the electric lock is in the all-in-one machine. The unscrupulous personnel can open the door by short circuit or destroy the independent access control machine without much professional knowledge, and even some can be sucked open by strong magnets. The relay in the types of access control opens the electric lock. Setting the card’s permissions is quite inconvenient. If a company has multiple doors that require access control, you need to set up and cancel one by one. The setup is quite cumbersome, and you don’t know which gates have permissions.
2), Networked access control systems
When the number of doors is large and needs to be centrally managed by software, a network access control systems are used.
The networked access control systems can communicate with the computer, and the access control software installed on the computer is used to set and analyze the access rights of the card to query the access control entry and exit records. Even the computer does not turn on, and the system can also run normally offline. The networked access control software operation can set the permissions and parameters and can monitor the entry and exit of each door in real time. Can count the attendance report and so on.
The network access control products include access controller + access control card reader + exit button + communication hub + proximity card + access control power supply+ access control software.
Advantages: high system safety factor, good cost performance, powerful function, convenient operation, value-added functions such as attendance can be derived through credit card record data analysis and management.
Among them, TCP/IP network access control systems are more advanced, the communication speed is faster, the network connection is wider, communication is more stable because the price is slightly more expensive than RS485 network access control system. Currently, the mainstream and trend of access control systems are networked access control systems.
Configuring the access control system products
In order to make your access control system go easier and simpler, you need to keep in mind the following seven important access control system components suggestions
- Selecting processing and control equipment of access control system, such as access controller and stand alone card reader.
- Choosing to identify an entry device for your access control system. Such as access control card readers, keyboards, and biometric card reader etc.
- Choosing access control electric door locks for your access control system. Such as electric blot locks, magnetic door locks
- Choosing the access control exit device for your access control system. Such as the exit button and remote control
- Choosing access control power supply for your access control system.
- Other access control accessories, such as doorbells, door magnets, and door closers, etc.
- Choose the right access control system management software.
Then, for the above access control system components suggestions, applying these suggestions to each point is how the access control design guide works. Now let’s analyze the above specifically
1, Processing and control equipment of access control system
The common access control system processing and control equipment have stand alone access control card reader and separate access controller.
1), stand alone access control card reader. If it is just a stand alone access control system for a door, then choose a simple stand alone access control card reader as the information processing and control device for the access control systems.
The stand alone access control card reader is the access control products that combines the card reader and the access controller. It has a stand-alone type and a networked type. Compared with the networked access control system separated from the card reader and the controller, the cost is lower, but due to the control is partially exposed, with a slightly lower security level, is often used by users who have an only single access point in some companies.
2), Access controller, also called access control board or an access control panel.
When the number of doors is large and networked access control system is used, you need to select a network access controller board as the processing and control device for the access control system.
The access controller is the core data processing and storage part of the door access control systems and the soul of the access control system. At present, there are two common types of network access controller: RS485 networked access controller and TCP/IP network access controller panel.
(1), RS485 network access control board, is the type of access controller that can communicate with the computer, directly using access control software for management, including card and event control. Therefore, it is convenient to manage, centralized and can view records and analyze and process records for other purposes.
Advantages: Simple training, value-added services such as attendance. The cost is relatively low, and the networking is independent and will not be interfered with by the shared network of other devices. Suitable for many people, large mobility, and many doors access control systems projects.
Disadvantages: high price, difficulty in installation and maintenance, a limited number of networking generally within 1000 units, the more devices, the more complex the network, the greater the interference. The network range is limited, generally only within a few hundred meters.
(2), TCP/IP network access controller panel, is also a network access control system, which is to network the computer and access controller through the network cable. The TCP/IP communication protocol is the current computer network universal standard protocol, which has the advantages of fast transmission speed, international standard, and good compatibility. Suitable for installation in large projects, large numbers of people, speed requirements, and cross-regional projects.
Advantages: fast communication speed, simpler installation, a larger number of networking, suitable for over 10,000 people, over 100 doors access control systems. The communication quality is stable and not susceptible to outside interference. If the user already has a network such as a local area network, it is not necessary to re-lay the network. With the existing network networking, it can be networked across regions or cities.
Disadvantages: The equipment is expensive and requires computer network knowledge.
(3), the access controller is divided according to the number of readers that can be connected to each door: one-way door access controller, two-way access controller
- If a door, the door is swiped, and the button is pressed out, the controller can only connect one reader to each door, called a one-way door access controller.
- If a door, enter by swiping the card, go out by swiping the card (can also take out the door button), each controller can connect two readers for each door, one is the door reader, and the other is the door reader, called the two-way Controller.
(4) According to the number of doors controlled by each controller, it can be divided into single door access control system,two-door access control system, and 4 door access control system.
2, Identify the entry device for your access control system
In all door access control systems, the access control electric lock needs to be signaled by an identification entry device. Common identification entry access control devices are password access control device, RFID card reader access control device, biometric door access control system device and time attendance access control device.
1), Password access control device: also called keypad door access control system device. Identify the access rights by verifying that the input password is correct.
Advantages: easy to operate, no need to carry cards; low cost.
Disadvantages: easy to leak, poor security; no entry and exit records; only one-way control.
Password keyboards access control devices are often used for single door access control systems and less expensive access control systems. They are easy to use but less secure because users tend to write down the item code or “borrow” it to other code. They also do not provide detailed audit trails until they are given a unique code.
2), Rfid card access systems device: also called RFID door lock access control system, recognize the access rights by reading the card or reading the card plus password.
Advantages: the door is convenient and safe; the service life is long, the theoretical data is at least ten years; the safety is high, the microcomputer can be connected, the door opening record can be realized; the two-way control can be realized. Cards are hard to copy.
Disadvantages: high cost, easy to be copied.
Proximity access control systems readers are the most popular choice for commercial access control systems. They are easy to use, and when cards are lost, it’s easy to deactivate them and post new cards. They can also be combined with photo IDs for added security. Close-range cards are the most common and can operate from one inch to three feet from the sensor. Because there is no contact between the card and the card reader, they are very reliable and hard to wear. They are also very cheap.
3), Biometric door access control system device, also called biometrics access control systems. identified by identifying human biometrics, such as fingerprint card reader, palm shape, iris type, facial recognition type, and finger vein recognition type.
Advantages: excellent security from the point of view of the identification.
Disadvantages: high cost. The recognition rate is not high, the environment requirements are high, and the user requirements are high (such as fingerprints cannot be scratched, the eyes cannot be red and swollen, the face cannot be injured, or the amount of beard), inconvenient to use (such as iris type and facial recognition) Type, the installation height position is certain, but the user’s height is different)
It is worth noting that most people think that the biometric access control system is very safe. In fact, this is a misunderstanding. The security of the access control system is not only the security of the identification method, but also the security of the control system, the security of the software system, and the security of the communication system. The security of the power system The whole system is a whole and the whole system is not safe. For example, some fingerprint access control systems, its controller and fingerprint reader are integrated and should be installed outdoors when installed, so that the line that controls the lock switch is exposed outdoors, and it is easy to be opened.
4), Time attendance access control device: also called fingerprint access control & time attendance system device, it is mainly used for company attendance management of employees. The access control installation on the company’s door can effectively prevent outside salesmen from entering the company to disrupt office order, and can effectively prevent outsiders from entering the company and ensure the safety of the company and employees’ property.
- It can effectively track whether employees are leaving. The time attendance management software can be used for attendance without a clock, the attendance results are more objective and fair, and the statistics are fast and accurate.
- Can greatly reduce the work intensity and workload of the personnel department.
- It can effectively solve the problem that some employees have to change the key of the door after leaving the company.
- It is convenient and flexible to arrange any person’s permission and door opening time for each door. Just carry a card, no need to wear a lot of heavy keys, and the security is more reassuring than the key.
Note: If your time attendance access control systems are complex, such as factory attendance, multiple shifts, and three shifts across the night shift, it is recommended that you purchase the time attendance machine separately from the attendance equipment company. Because of the functional requirements of the access control system and the attendance system, the inspection standards for products are different. The access control system focuses on product stability and safety. The time attendance system focuses on the strength of the attendance function, and the requirements for stability and anti-interference are not high, because if the attendance machine crashes or garbled, you can easily perform a power-off reset. The access control system requires the system to work for a long time without crashing. If a person is shut out of the door, it is impossible to reset the power failure. Frequent power-off reset will also add a lot of trouble to your use.
3, Electric door locks for access control system
In all door access control systems, electrical locks represent physical safety barriers. Commonly used electric locks for door access control are electric blot lock, magnetic lock, and electric strike door lock.
1), Electric blot lock: Also called electric drop bolt lock or electric deadbolt lock.
The electric lock opens the door after power off. Because according to fire protection requirements, the building will automatically cut off the power when the fire occurs, the electric lock should be opened to facilitate the escape of personnel, so most of the electric drop bolt locks are powered off and opened.
Usually used for glass doors, wooden doors, and electric drop bolt lock installation is installed frameless glass doors in access control system.
Advantages: Concealed safety, beautiful appearance, good security, not easy to be opened.
Disadvantages: It is hard to dig the keyhole during installation.
Note: Some glass doors are frameless glass door, now you need to buy a Frameless Glass Door Electric Bolt Lock and electric bolt lock brackets to assist in the installation.
2), Magnetic lock: Also called electromagnetic locks or maglocks.
It is an access control electric lock that relies on the suction generated between the electromagnet and the iron block to close the door. The magnetic door lock is also an electric lock that opens the door when power off. Magnetic locks are commonly used for wooden doors, metal doors, and fire doors.
Today’s magnetic locks compare well above that of conventional door locks and they cost less than conventional light bulbs to operate. Power supplies incorporating a trickle-charged lead-acid battery pack should be used to retain security for short-term power outages. Magnetic locks possess a number of advantages over conventional locks and electric strikes. For example, their durability and quick operation can make them valuable in a high-traffic office environment where electronic authentication is necessary. Also, you can control magnetic door lock with remote control.
Advantages: The performance is relatively stable, and the repair rate will be lower than other access control electric locks. It is easy to install, no need to dig the lock hole, only use the wire trough, and fix the lock body with screws.
Disadvantages: It is usually installed on the top of the door sill outside the door, and because of the exposure, the aesthetics and safety are not as good as the hidden installation of the electric mortise lock. The price is almost the same as the electric bolt lock, and some will be slightly higher.
Due to the limited suction, the usual model is 280 kg. This strength may be suddenly pulled by many people at the same time, or with great strength. Therefore, the magnetic lock is usually used in the office and other non-high security levels where the anti-senior is not against the villain. In some safety situations, such as “prison”, if a magnetic lock is used, a magnetic lock with a tensile strength of more than 500 kg will be customized.
4, access control exit device for your access control system
In order to ensure free passage to leave the security door, all door access control systems include a quick exit device. Examples include access control exit card readers, exit buttons, motion detectors, emergency exit buttons, and remote access control devices.
1), Access control exit card reader: also called proximity access control card reader or swipe card entry systems reader.
It is used for swiping the card to enter and also swiping the card when going out. We usually call it “two-way doors access control systems”.
The advantage of this method is that the security level is high, and it is generally not allowed to be casually released. The people who go out have records to query and know who is out. Which door.
2), Exit button: also called access control door exit button or door release button. As the name suggests, the exit button is installed near the exit point and contains the direction of the green or red button. The door can be opened by push to exit buttons. When the card is swiped, you don’t need to swipe the card when you go out. Push button release to open the access control electric lock and open the door.
The advantage of this method is that it is convenient to come in and to go out. This method is more convenient to use than the first method, the security is slightly lower (the outsider is not against internal personnel), and the cost is lower. This method is more popular.
3), Remote access control device, also called the gate remote control system. Customers request access control remote devices usually has two purposes, namely:
Purpose 1: No need to go to the door and push exit buttons to open the door for the visitor. Instead, carry the remote control with you, press the remote control, the door will open, and the visitors will come in.
Purpose 2: Some users have insufficient confidence in the stability of the electronic products of the access control system. It is hoped that there will be a measure to open the door through the second way even if the access control system is broken.
4), Push Bars attach across the inside of the door at the height of the door latch. You exit the door by pressing against the bar. The action of pressing the bar releases the latch and the door opens.
5), Emergency Exits attach on a wall near the exit point. Emergency exits are available in two general types, the first is a ‘break-glass’ model. To gain exit, you break the glass face. The action depresses a button inside the switch and releases the door. The second type uses a pull-down handle to release the door.
6), Motion Sensors function by detecting a vehicle or person approaching an exit and unlock the door. In addition to motion sensors, several other types of free exit systems are available including loop detectors and photocells or beams
5, Access control power supply for your access control system
Access control power supply/charger equipment is specifically designed for use with door access control systems and accessories. To ensure the stability of the entire system.
There are two main types of door access control system power supply, linear power supply for access control system and switching access control power supplies.
1), linear power supply for access control system
Advantages: stable performance, no high-frequency ripple, and other interference.
Disadvantages: fever, low energy efficiency. There is no superpower supply to choose from.
2), Switching access control power supply
Advantages: It is convenient to use a high-power power supply for centralized power supply, and it shows better cost performance when raw materials and other prices continue to rise. Small size and lightweight.
Disadvantages: If the power quality is not good, the high-frequency ripple is not well controlled. For some access controllers with poor anti-interference ability, it is easy to cause the door controller to crash, resulting in the situation of not opening the door.
3), How to choose the right power supply for the door access control systems?
12V DC is used for most access control systems, which means the power could be evaluated by a parameter of current. On consideration of its impact resistance and steady operation, suggestions are made as follows:
- If a linear power supply for access control system is preferred, a controller with 4 units electric drop bolt locks, a nominal 5-7A linear power supply is suggested.
- If a linear access control system power supply is preferred, a controller with 1 electric bolt lock, a nominal 3A linear power supply is suggested.
- If a switching access control power supply is preferred, a controller with 4 units electronic deadbolt locks, a nominal 4-5A linear power supply is suggested.
- If a switching access control power supply is preferred, a controller with 1 electric bolt lock, a nominal 3A linear power supply is suggested.
- If there are 8 drop bolt door locks or 6 maglocks with a controller, over nominal 10A switching power supply is suggested.
4), How to ensure that the access control system can continue to operate normally after power off?
Since the access control electric locks that are normally disabled by the door are all electric locks that are powered off because such electric locks meet the fire protection requirements. If you want to use the access control system after the power failure, there are two ways:
(1), Choosing an access control power supply with a backup battery.
Advantages: good cost performance, low cost,
Disadvantages: Due to the cost and not every customer needs battery considerations, the charging and discharging circuit of this solution is generally simple, and there is no precise perfect fast charging and overcharging protection.
A standard backup battery for access control system(7Ah 12VDC) can be used for an electric blot lock 4-8 hours, if the time is not enough, it can be connected in parallel, no parallel connection Too many side effects, how many batteries are connected in parallel, can extend the power-up capacity many times, but the charging time will be doubled.
(2), To choose an access control power supply and an external UPS solution: use UPS uninterruptible power supply to supply power to the access controller.
Professional UPS has fast charge and overcharge protection, the cost is relatively high, the UPS with a 7Ah battery is the cheapest, more than 200, the power is doubled, the price is several times more expensive. Because the circuit is relatively precise, it is also relatively power-hungry. The UPS with a standard battery can only be used for an access control device with an electric lock for 2-4 hours.
6, Access control accessories
In order to implement some special functions of the access control systems, some additional access control accessories equipment are needed. Common door access control accessories are door magnet, access control board expansion board, and doorbell.
1), Door magnet: also called door lock magnet or door magnet sensor, It is a small sensor that used to detect whether the door is closed.
The main role of door magnetism in the door access control system is the following:
- l When the software is monitored in real time, you can see whether the status of each door is open or closed.
- l It can be used with the access controller to enable the door to be illegally entered into the alarm.
- l It can be activated with the access controller. The alarm has not been turned off for a long time.
There are a lot of access control electric locks with the magnetic function of the door. It is recommended that if the door magnet is used in the access control system, it is better to purchase the electric lock with the magnetic function of the door (door status feedback function).
2), Access controller expansion board: It is used with the access controller board. Mainly to play the fire linkage, alarm, and other functions. Commonly used is the input terminal of the smoke sensor, and the output is connected to the alarm. In the event of a fire, the smoke sensor inputs a level signal that triggers an alarm to sound.
7, Access control system management software
Access control system Management software should have functions such as device management, personal information management, badge printing, user authorization, operator authority management, alarm information management, event browsing, and electronic map.
The access control software is installed on the access control host, which is responsible for the maintenance and management of the entire access control system. It can realize centralized management, parameter setting, system maintenance, data query, entry and exit statistics and alarm event records of all door points.
The mostt access control system software is powerful enough to meet the needs of companies with at least a thousand users. When you start to manage multiple shifts, thousands of employees and hundreds of doors, you can greatly increase the overall complexity. At this level, you may need ODBC-compliant (Open Database Connectivity) software that can connect to your existing payroll, time and attendance, and other human resources and security systems.